Abstract: This article provides an overview of the lexical meaning, subject areas and chronology of usage, as well as the terminological origin of the term shingitai.
Research method: For bibliographic queries, I used the National Diet Library of Japan (one of the largest libraries in the world), Webcat Plus (a search service for books and papers operated by the National Institute of Informatics in Japan), and CiNii (a bibliographic database service for materials in Japanese academic libraries, maintained by the National Institute of Informatics). Moreover, I used the term base Kotobank, a service allowing to search for the meaning of a term from entries in highly reliable Japanese dictionaries, encyclopedias, and databases.
Result: As expected, shingitai is by no means an ancient Japanese martial arts concept, but rather a construction of contemporary Japan. Two isolated cases appear in the 1940s, but shingitai really took a foothold since the 1950s, mostly in sumo, but spread out quickly to judo and kendo, until in the mid-1990s the media adopted it for the Japanese budo in general. In 2008, shingitai was finally included in the very definition of Japanese budo by a semi-official institution. During these decades, shingitai has also spread to all kinds of sports as well as many other professional fields, as shown in this article.
Western online dictionaries translate shingitai as “mind, technique, and physical strength,” and as the “three qualities of a martial artist or athlete: heart, technique, strength.” This is consistent with the literal translation and partly with the scope of use shingitai.
Certainly, the compound noun shingitai comprises of the following terms (on-reading in bold, followed by kun-reading):
- shin / kokoro: mind
- gi / waza: technique
- tai / karada: body
Therefore, in its simplest interpretation, shingitai means “mind, technique, and body.” At the same time, it insinuates the unity or trinity of its three compartments. Shingitai is commonly used extactly this sense in sports to mean a “balance of mind, body, and spirit.”
In addition, shingitai is further defined as a general term representing the desired unity of the following three compartments:
- mental strength (seishin-ryoku, i.e. shin),
- technique / skill (gijutsu, i.e., gi), and
- physical strength (tairyoku, i.e., tai).
Equating the above, shingitai refers to “mental strength, skill, and physical strength,” and implies the unity thereof as a goal.
The above description is the sole main entry of shingitai found in all Japanese dictionaries referred to in the Kotobank term base. In addition, shingitai does not have an individual entry as a term in Japanese Wikipedia. This raises the question of its actual distribution in general Japanese language.
In Japanese Wikipedia, shingitai as a term is found in the entries about the Grand Slam Paris 2011, Satō Nobuyuki (Japanese marathon runner), Iwai Joshiki (Japanese baseball player), Hayashi Toshiyuki (Japanese rugby union player), Akaiwa Yoshio (Japanese boat racer), TV-show “Juken Sentai Gekiranger” (Beast-Fist Squadron Gekiranger), Ogasawara Hiroshi (Japanese rugby player), Fuji Sankei Ladies Classic (Golf), Takahashi Miyuki (Japanese volleyball player), as well as in a very few budō-related entries such as about “Monthly Budō” magazine, henka (variation of technique) in sumō, and budō. In short, shingitai is used heavily in relation to various sports.
About swimming, the Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponica) says, “Performance in sports is the combined result of technique (gijutsu), physical strength (tairyoku), and willpower (kiryoku). The basic elements necessary to improve swimming records are (1) the swimming style and the techniques for starting and turning, (2) physical strength, stamina, endurance, and (3) mental strength to support them. In addition, strategic elements such as setting the pace that make use of mind, technique, and body (shingitai) are also important in the game. In particular, the elements of mind, technique, and body (shingitai) are improved through daily training. The extent to which a player can improve these depends on their individual qualities, but it also depends on how well they incorporate training methods based on scientific theories according to the characteristics of the player.”
While the above article mentions shingitai in general terms, it also describes it specifically for improving swimming performance through training, namely
- gi or technique as “(1) the swimming style and the techniques for starting and turning,”
- tai or body as “(2) physical strength, stamina, endurance,” and
- shin or mind as “(3) mental strength to support them.”
The same text also gives shin as “willpower” (kiryoku).
The Japanese version of Britannica International Encyclopedia has shingitai in its entry on jūdō, saying that randori “is a practice method in which mind, technique, and body (shingitai) are trained to develop the ability to adapt to the situation, and to learn how to compete. When Kanō Jigorō founded jūdō, he emphasized the simultaneous practice of training of the spirit, competition, and physical education.”
From this it could be said that shingitai is found in jūdō as follows: shin refers to the training of the spirit (shūshin), gi refers to techniques applied in competition (shōbu), and tai refers to physical education (taiiku).
From the above, the nuance of the meaning of shingitai slightly shifted to the following:
- shin: mind, mental strength, willpower, spirit
- gi: technique, skill, techniques applied in a competition
- tai: body, physical strength, physical education
Appearance of the term Shingitai in Budō
(Note: Due to time constrictions, all titles are quick English translations without full bibliographic reference)
The term shingitai appears as early as 1942, in a sumō periodical, mentioning the “spirit, technique, and body (shingitai) of the three highest sumō ranks and their plunging into the fight” (Sumō 7(5), 1942-05, p. 66). Elsewhere it is said that “The spirit, technique, and body (shingitai) are harmoniously integrated, and the dignity of a yokozuna naturally oozes out” (Jinbutsu Ōrai 1-8, August 1952). It is reported that one wrestler “showed remarkable strength in mind, technique, and body (shingitai)” (Sumō 3(7), 1954-05, p. 36) and that another, “although he was exceptional already, his mind, technique, and body (shingitai) gradually improved, and in 1934 he was promoted to ōzeki, and in 1937 he was promoted to the long-awaited yokozuna, competing with Tamanishiki and Musashiyama (Sumō 4(9), 1955-06 p. 82). It is also published as a manly topic elsewhere, such as can be seen in “Shingitai: The 57th Yokozuna Mienoumi Tsuyoshi,” published in the Monthly Construction Report by the Ministry of Construction in June (1980, p. 4-5). In July 1964, Kosaka Hideji wrote a special feature called “When will Tochinoumi’s mind, technique, and body (shingitai) be completed?” (Sumō, 1964-7, p 41-47).
In the following decades shingitai appeared in countless sumō-related publications, of which following is just a selection. In 1971, Futagoyama Katsuji, the 45th yokozuna also known as Wakanohana Kanji I., published “Mind, technique, and body (shingitai),” followed three years later by his “Introduction to mind, technique, and body (shingitai nyūmon).”
In 1972, the “Battle of Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai)” by Taihō Kōki, 48th sumō grand champion was published in the extra-large new year’s edition of “Foresight Economy” magazine, which shows how shingitai entered the world of management early by way of sumō. In 2011, former sumō wrestler Mainoumi Shuhei published “Contradictions in the Sumō-Ring: The Truth in the Chaos of Grand Sumō Wrestling,” published by Business Japan, 2011, one of the first business magazines of Japan.
“Mind, technique, and body (shingitai)” magazine was published by the Sumō Research Group since 1983, and in 2011 the 58th yokozuna Chiyonofuji Mitsugu, published “The Power of the Rope” at Baseball Magazine under his later name Kokonoe Mitsugu.
The above is a glimpse of the use of shingitai as used in sumō. In fact, sumō-related publications dominated the overall use of shingitai until the late 1970. It therefore seems that shingitai first and foremost developed and evolved within the sumō world, and it continued to be used uninterruptedly in the context of sumō until today. It can be assumed that the use of the term shingitai radiated out from sumō publications to other fields to a considerable extent.
In relation to kendō, the concept is found in 1955, saying “In this way, the opponent’s mind, technique, and body (shingitai) will be overwhelmed and he will lose his head, and with my sword pointed right at his center, I pierce through him to win.” (Sasamori Junzō: Kendō. Ōbunsha Sports Series, 1955, p. 54).
More recent publications are “The Strongest Kendō” (2008), Koyama Masaki’s “Samurai Learning with Japanese Swords: The Most Easy-to-understand Iaido Bible for Modern People” (2008), or “Kendō Practice Menu 200: Strengthen your mind, technique, and body!” (2012) by Koda Gunhide, a 8th dan kyōshi and professor of Tsukuba University, and Yano Hiroshi, 8th dan hanshi and former professor of Kokushikan University, published “Kendō – A Message from a Teacher” (Physical Education and Sports Publishing, 2017).
In a 1950s jūdō course edited by Mifune Kyūzō and others, it is said, “It is desirable to come to demonstrate the power of unified mind, technique, and body (shingitai).” (Mifune Kyūzō et.al.: Jūdō Course, Vol. 1, 1955, p. 33). In a magazine published by the Kōdōkan is found a chapter called “About the mind, technique, and body (shingitai) of 30 athletes participating in international games” (Jūdō 50 (11). Kōdōkan, November 1979, p. 17-23). In 1982, Yamashita Yasuhiro, one of Japan’s most successful jūdōka and 8th dan holder published “The Judo World’s No. 1! Yamashita 5th Dan’s mind, technique and body (shingitai).” Gold medalist of the 2000 Olympics and Japanese jūdō coach Inoue Kōsei provided “Strengthen your mind, techniques, and body (shingitai)! Judo basics and practice menu” in 2013.
In karate apparently shingitai appeared for the first time in 1952, when Konishi Yasuhiro mentions that, “a kiai will promote the unification of the trinity of spirit, technique, and body (shingitai), so as to occupy an undefeatable position” (Konishi Yasuhiro: Zukai Karate Nyūmon, 1952, p. 11). In 1956, again by Konishi Yashuhiro, the following words can be said to establish shingitai as a part of an ideal form of karate: “In other words, karate practitioners should pursue the trinity of mind, technique, and body (shingitai).” (Konishi Yasuhiro: Karate jōtatsu-hō. 1956, p. 10).
However, in karate literature, it wasn’t emphasized much, until, in 1990, we find shingitai in karate again “for those who aim to improve their mind, technique, and body” (Shiroishi Shōji: Karatedō kyōgi nyūmon. Baseball Magazine Publishers, 1990). This is followed by Hokama Tetsuhiro’s “The Essence of Okinawa Karate and Kobudō” (1999), where it appeared in the context of Okinawa karate and kobudō. Kyokushin adopted shingitai as well, as can be seen in “Karate revolutionary Hamai Noriyasu – Kyokushin’s New Theory” of 2009, followed by shingitai used in “Kuro Obi: Aim for an invincible black belt!” published by BAB Japan in 2011. Ushirō Kenji, who teaches karate worldwide, also published “Learn how to train your mind, technique and body (shingitai) from Ushirō Kenji” in 2011. While these are just examples, it is true that the number of karate books that feature shingitai are small, particularly when compared to sumō.
Shioda Yasuhisa, third Sōke of Yoshinkan Aikidō, wrote “50 Tips for Improving Aikidō: Master your mind, technique, and body (shingitai)!” in 2008, but otherwise the use of shingitai in aikidō seems rare, at least in publications, which is also true for kyūdō, for which at least “Modern Kyūdō Course, Volume 5” (1969) could be verified.
Book of Five Rings
An edition of the “Book of Five Rings” (1980) includes the chapter “Miyamoto Musashi’s mind, technique, and body (shingitai),” and editions by other authors from 1996 and 2002 again include a reference to shingitai.
By the 2010s, (shingitai) has entered the world of the ninja, with Kuroi Hiromitsu’s “Ninja Cram School: Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai) learned from Ninja (2011), Kawakami Jin’ichi’s “Ninja: From the Origins to Ninjutsu and Weapons: Approach the Truth of the Army of Darkness!” (2012), and Komori Teruhisa’s “The Secret of the Ninja’s Unbeatable Spirit” (2017).
Budō as a whole
In any case, the time when shingitai began to not only be associated with individual Japanese arts, but formally entered the Japanese budō world en gros, was when the Nippon Budokan began to publish the magazine Gekkan Budō (Monthly Budō). While the first version of it which ran from 1974 to 1996, had no direct reference to shingitai, in 1997, an additional title was added, namely “Comprehensive magazine that nurtures mind, technique, and body (shingitai).” This was the point in time when the connection between budō and shingitai became quasi official.
A little more than 10 years later, shingitai found its way into the definition of the “Foundational Principles of Budō” (budō no rinen) by the Japanese Budō Association (Nippon Budō Kyōgikai) as follows.
Budō is an exercise culture that unifies mind and technique (shingi ichinyo) that is based on the training of martial techniques systematized in Japan, and it originates from the tradition of bushidō. By practising jūdō, kendō, kyūdō, sumō, karatedō, aikidō, Shōrinji kenpō, naginata, and jūkendō, it is a path to forge mind, technique, and body (shingitai) in unity, to refine one’s character, to raise one’s moral sense, to cultivate an attitude of respect for propriety, and to contribute to peace and prosperity of nation and society.
Established October 10, 2008
Japanese Budō Association (Nippon Budō Kyōgikai)
In 1989, historian Minamoto Ryōen wrote a work called “Kata” 型, asking “What is the ultimate kata – the unity of mind, technique, and body (shingitai) – that physical action aims for?” In this, he equates kata with the unity of mind, technique, and body, that is, shingitai. Chapter 2 is called “Thoughts on Body, Mind and Technique in Prehistory, Antiquity, and the Middle Ages.” From old texts of nō drama and kenjutusu, Minamoto traces the spiritual history of “kata.”
However, it seems to be an attempt to backdate shingitai as a concept existing since the origin of the Japanese nation.
Appearance of the term Shingitai in other contexts
Shingitai does only appear in budō, quite on the contraty. Below are publications from various other contexts and fields which also include shingitai.
Moreover, early on shingitai was also heavily used in connection with Western sports, as can be seen in in a 1952 baseball magazine, which writes that, “A good man who never gives up, trains his mind, technique, and body (shingitai), respects himself, and eventually gains recognition from the world.”( Baseball Magazine. 1952, p. 36), and it is also mentioned in relation to table tennis (Nippon University, 1956-05, p. 24). Another example is the description that “a good strike comes out when a good hitter has the heart, technique, and body strength (shingitai),” (Baseball Magazine Vol.1, 11(1), 1956-01, p. 132). In 1962, Yaoita Hiroshi, co-founder of Yasaka Table Tennis Equipment, published “Table Tennis” (Takkyū), with chapter 2 emphasizing “The Unity of Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai).” More recently, former professional baseball pitcher Takashi Saitō published “The magic spell of Mind, Technique, and Body that will definitely work!” in the “Whonk and One Blow”-Series, Vol. 9, 2005, and there are guidebooks such as “Mental Training for Baseball Players: Change your mindset, improve your concentration, and win!” (2008)
Hasegawa Shigetoshi, retired relief pitcher in Major League Baseball, best-selling author and Japanese television personality, published “Winning a Major: The Mind, Technique, and Body of Japanese Pitchers” (2011), while Tezuka Kazushi wrote “Batting Strategy Theory: Raise your batting average and aim for long hits” (2012). Tatsunami Kazuyoshi and Nomura Hiroki wrote “The secret to improving baseball with parents and children: Hints for success, mind, technique, and professional thinking that everyone can learn” (2022) and Iwai Seiku publishd “Iwai-style Hard Baseball. The royal road method to hone your mind, technique, and body” (2018).
Besides there is Andō Misako’s “You can win the game! Softball’s strongest tactics” (2012), Kawagoe Shinsuke’s “You can win the game! Futsal’s 50 strongest tactics (2013), and Hasegawa Tarō’s “How to prepare mind, technique and body (shingitai) to mass-produce goals in soccer” (2017).
All of the above address shingitai.
Management, Business, Guidebooks
Another interesting field using shingitai is that of industrial management, leadership, sales, business self-help literature and guidebooks. In a continuous series in an industrial management magazine, Hirano Hiroyuki introuces “MRP (Material Requirements Planning) for small and medium-sized manufacturers,” saying that “You can also create a MRP’s mind, technique, and body (shingitai) production schedule” (In: Factory Management 27(10)(346), 1981-09, p. 101-110), and Mito Kiyoshi wrote “Aiming to be a technician with a good balance of mind, technique, and body (shingitai)” (In: Skills and Techniques. Technical Journal for the Development of Vocational Ability (5)(204), 2000, p. 9-15, published by the Vocational Training College of the Employment Promotion Agency). Shingitai is found in “The Exploding Solar Cell Industry: Current Status and Future of the 25 Trillion Yen Market” (2008) as wel as in Shimane Masamitsu’s and Shimizu Toshiyuki’s “Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai) for Entrepreneurship: Steps to an Innovative Way of Life” (2018).
Also, in case you didn’t know it, there are “77 Laws of employees who continue to be selected: There is a trick to getting promoted quickly!” (2009). You also might be interested in “Skillful business succession of a small company: For a rich life plan after retirement” (2009), “The Power of Capable Rookie Leaders: How Modern Newcomers Acquire Mind, Techniques, and Body Forms (2010), the “Aesthetics of the Bartender: The Tavern Equation” (2010) or “Nikaido Shigeto’s Golden Rules of Successful Trading: The Secrets of Making Stocks and Forex (2011).
Whether you’re looking for “A chairmans’s accounting that changes management in one hour” as a “Prescription to prevent cash flow bankruptcy” (2010), “Heart Voice – Talk Techniques for Tele Appointment Sales” (2011), or “An introduction to the mind, technique, and body (shingitai) of sexy women” – it is all there.
You might also consult “Shin-Gi-Tai in the U.S. and Japan as Seen in Data” (Commerce and Industry Journal 23 (6), pp. 40-41, 1997-06), “Build better homes organically” (2013), or “How to create your best self” (2013) by the Japan Management Association Management Center – shingitai is in it, and there are countless more beyond the following short selection.
- Matsui Hideki: 100% Thinking that Breaks Down Walls. PHP Lab, 2011.
- Yamamoto Kazutaka: MBA Thinking and Writing Techniques: The heart and technique of business documents. Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 2011.
- Sakaue Hitoshi; Ogasawara Koji: The Esay Guide to Start Your Own Company in Japan. Medium, 2011.
- Kitakage Yuyuki: Samurai Athlete Soul: Mind, Techniques, and Techniques Learned from Hagakure: A Must-Read for Leaders! Study Hard, 2012.
- Komori Osamu: Kaizen Leader Training School. Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, 2012.
- Mori Shigekazu: The Power to Keep Winning: Morishige-style Staff Studies to Nurture a Tenacious Organization. Business Company, 2012.
- The Complete Guide to Work Experience 34. Poplar Company, 2013.
- Darjeeling Himalayan Railway – ‘Moving World Heritage’ at the Roof of the World in India. Kodansha, 2006.
- Moritomo Sadao: Intellect and mind, technique, and body in quality manufacturing. Journal of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering 63 (2), pp. 158-161, 1997.
- Sugashita Kiyohiro: How to Ride Your Life on the Uptrend. Best Sellers, 2013.
- Matsuoka Shuzo: Repair manager – Head of Repair Department. Takarajimasha, 2017.
- Uchiyama Hiroyuki: Mind, technique, and body to improve performance: The path to successful sales activities. The New Japan Insurance Company, 2002.
- Shimane Masamitsu, Shimizu Toshiyuki; Ariyoshi Tokuhiro: Mind, Technique, and Body for Entrepreneurship: Steps to an Innovative Way of Life. Izumi Bundo, 2018.
- Hirokawa Keisuke; Asayama Noboru et.al.: Mind, technique, and body of a project manager who does not fail in system introduction: Awareness for sustainable growth. Seiunsha, 2019.
Already in 1943 shingitai appears in a periodical of the Japan Handicraft Research Association in connection with occupational training, so it seems that the concept reached into various fields, such as can be seen in the “New Electricity” periodal, which states, “In order to maintain superiority at all times, it is necessary to demonstrate the unity of shin, gi, and tai to the highest degree” (New Electricity. Ohm Publishing, 1957-01, p. 70), and it might also be seen in connection with company sports teams, transcending the boundary to the vocational world.
Alread in the 1960s, shingitai is found in conncetion with board games, as can be seen in “Victory: Go and Guts” (1965) by Sakata Eio, 9th dan professional go player, which has a section called “Mind – Technique – Body (shingitai).” Makoto Nakahara, a former professional shogi player who had gained the rank of a 9th dan, wrote about “How to carry out self-development. ‘Match’ with comprehensive power of mind, technique, and body (shingitai),” published by the “Management Consultant,” 1973-5, p. 96-97.
Medical Science and Sports Psychology
In “A Medical Approach to Anthropology” (1989), Chapter 7 covers an “Approach to a Four-Dimensional Human Image from Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai)” and 1997 saw “The SOP theory that made 21-year-old Tiger Woods who likes ‘hamburgers’ and ‘to win’ approach the mind, technique, and body (shingitai)” (Gendai 31 (12), pp. 186-193, 1997-12), while Kakegawa Akio wrote “A Surgeon’s Mental Attitude. Maintaining and Improving the Balance of Mind, Technique and Body (shingitai) will bring Good Results” (In: Surgery 63 (1), pp. 73-74, 2001-01-01). The 2010s saw the puclications such as Kodama Mitsuo’s “ATop Athlete’s Quote from Poor Life Theory” (2012), “Mind, technique, and body (shingitai) in academic drug discovery” (Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, 2013), “Marathon Sense and Running IQ” by Hosono Fumiaki (2018), and Sakurai Shoichi’s “Requirements for Gold Medalists: How to create top-notch mind, technique, and body (shingitai)” (2020). Reaching the 2020s, there is Miyaji Shigeru’s “New Cerebral Endovascular Therapy Book: 68 Moves of Miyaji-style Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai)” (Medica, 2022).
Shingitai began to appear in novels, such as can be seen in “Since ancient times, this has been called mind, technique, and body (shingitai). Without these three things, you cannot become a full-fledged swordsman!” (Nakayama Mitsuyoshi: Tamiya Bōtarō, 1956, p. 72).
Shingitai also found its way into music, such as in an introduction to “mind, technique and body of Katsumi Hagiya’s trombone playing” (Pipers, 1981-12, p. 34-39), or “Research on music expression using musical instruments (3). Prospects for wind and percussion activities in school education” (Bulletin of Tomakomai Komazawa University (3) pp. 1-19, 2000-03).
Takada Saburō provided a “Daily Training Book for Singing Higher” (2008), while Ayame Yoshinobu asks, “Is it possible to play in an ensemble today?” (Tokyo Metropolitan Foundation for History and Culture Arts Council Tokyo, 2020).
Finally, in 1984, shingitai appears in the educational context (Educational Perspectives 30(2)(320), 1984), and ten years later in Physical Education (42(14), 1994), published by the Japan Sports Instructors Federation, including a special feature on “Sports and Mental Training” with research by Endō Takurō (“Human Mind and Body”) and Egawa Kinsei (“The Mind, Technique, and Body that Determines Competition Results”). The latter, Egawa Kinsei, already published “Conditions for Victory: Mental Training for Sportsmen” in 1986, which also includes references to shingitai.
There is the “Mind, technique, and body (shingitai) in English class” (2009), and Takano Michi’s “Thinking about Coaching: From the Perspective of Active Players” (Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Physical Education 44B (0), 1993), or Sato Hisao’s “Ordinary children became the best in Japan! Sendai High School’s Mind, Technique, and Body (shingitai)” (2001). And of course, as Saito Takashi saiud, “This will make school more fun” (2011).
In Germany, there is the series “Geist-Technik-Körper (shingitai): Writings on the background of Budo-Arts,” with the “History of Japanese Martial Arts” (1996), “Budō in today’s time” (1998), “Tobi-ishi: Stepping stones of a karate path: Experiences, experiences and reflections from four decades of karate practice” (2007), and others.
Coaching and self-help publications feature shingitai, such as “Self-Coaching Learned from Ichiro’s Words: The 99.99 Law for Living Yourself” (2008). There is also the outdoor world with “Fishing Romance: What Fishing Taught Me” (2011) and hentai, such as “One Piece Nippon Longitudinal! 47 Cruise CD 42 (in Nagasaki Hentai – Franky goes to Nagasaki) (2015).
Politics and Administration
In 2020, Kawai Toshikazu described “Mind, technique, and body (shingitai) to fulfill the city hall staff,” and there are the “Prospects for Democratic Judiciary: Shinomiya’s 70th Anniversary Commemorative Papers: Expectations for the Citizens as a Governing Body” (2022).
Also in the field of academic publications, one instance of shingitai can be seen in the 1950s, saying “If the mind, technique and body (shingitai) are not united, good results cannot be achieved” (Nihon University 1(1), 1956-05, p. 24). However, in academic discourse, shingitai appeared rather late. A keyword search at Waseda University Repository shows that shingitai as an academic topic only appeared since 2004. The earliest result found at through a query at the University of Tokyo Library OPAC System is from 1998, namely “The Science of Thoroughbreds: The Mind, Techniques, and Body of Racehorses” by the Japan Central Racehorse Research Institute and published by Kodansha in 1998. This again raises the question of how much shingitai was actually and formally used in general or technical languages. Particularly in science and academics, the reason might be that it is already an outdated concept for most disciplines, particularly in medicine, psychology, neuroscience and the like.
© 2023, Andreas Quast. All rights reserved.