The gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl

Japanese ceramic artist Hayashi Kyōsuke 林恭助 is one of the few people worldwide who succeeded in recreating what is called a Yōhen Tenmoku teabowl (Yōhen Tenmoku Chawan 曜變変天目茶碗) in Japan, or Jian teabowl (Jian zhan 建盞) in China. This refers to a specific kind of teabowls that have been fired roughly 800 years ago during the southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) in the kilns of what is now Fujian province: While originally large quantities of teabowls were produced at those kilns, within the baking process a very few of them gained star-like glowing patterns on the surface which allow for the designation as Yōhen Tenmoku teabowl.

There are different categories of Tenmoku teabowls from the kilns in present-day Fujian Province back in the Song dynasty. In Japan, within these categories – and in fact within all teabowls – the Yōhen Tenmoku are considered to be the ones of supreme quality. They are characterized, among others, by patterns of starburst sparkles embedded in a dark blue glaze.

As regards terminology, Yōhen – written 曜變 or 耀變 – literally means as much as “gloriously transforming…” It seems to refer the calaidoscopic effects of glistening iridescent sparkles, colors and surface structure under changing light. However, usually it is translated as “changed by the fire,“ referring to the effects of the baking process on the glaze that takes place in the kiln. Sometimes it is simply translated as “spotted” or “speckled.”

Tenmoku is the Japanese pronunciation of Mount Tianmu (lit. Heaven’s Eye), located on the border of Zhejiang province and Anhui, China. Mount Tianmu lent its name to the teabowls which became known as Tenmoku in Japan.

So, as a somewhat adequate working solution, Yōhen Tenmoku Chawan might well be translated as “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl.”

Hitherto only three completely intact specimens of “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls” are known to exist in the whole world. All these three are located in Japan, and all these three are designated a National Treasure. The three current “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls” belong to:

  1. Seikadō Bunko Art Museum in Tōkyō.
  2. Fujita Art Museum in Ōsaka.
  3. Ryūkō-in subtemple of the Daitokuji Temple in Kyōto.

Crystalline patterns appear spontaneously within the baking process and produce the distinctive starburst sprinkles. In most cases these sprinkles appear mainly on the interior of the bowl, such as in case of the specimen of the Seikadō Bunko Art Museum, which is considered to be of the highest quality among the “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls.” However, in case of the Fujita Museum specimen the sparkles are on the exterior surface of the bowl, which is a unique feature and makes it absolutely gorgeous.

  1. Seikadō Bunko Art Museum in Tōkyō.
“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Seikadō Bunko Art Museum in Tōkyō.

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Seikadō Bunko Art Museum in Tōkyō.

2. Fujita Art Museum in Ōsaka

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Fujita Art Museum in Ōsaka.

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Fujita Art Museum in Ōsaka.

3. Ryūkō-in subtemple of the Daitokuji Temple in Kyōto

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Ryūkō-in subtemple of the Daitokuji Temple in Kyōto.

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” (designated a National Treasure of Japan) of Ryūkō-in subtemple of the Daitokuji Temple in Kyōto.

A fourth Yōhen Tenmoku teabowl was discovered in Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, China in 2009. However, it is broken to various pieces.

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” discovered in Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, China in 2009.

“Gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” discovered in Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, China in 2009.

Well, this rare porcelain manufacturing technology of the Song Dynasty has been long lost in China itself. The reason for this is that, while ceramic-making methods reached their all-time pinnacle 800 years ago during the Song Dynasty, the technology fell in disuse soon afterwards and finally was lost completely. It is therefore little surprising that, when in 2007 earlier mentioned ceramic artist Hayashi presented a replicated “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” to Chinese ceramic experts in Beijing, they greatly admired it and and commended Hayashi’s reproduction. At that time no one in China was able to recreate such a teabowl.

Ceramic artist Nagae Sōkichi 長江惣吉 from Seto City in Aichi Prefecture also succeeded in reproducing replica of a “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl,” and his replica is considered to come as close as possible to the originals. Actually, Nagae produced the astonishing number of 20,000 teabowls, of which only 4 or 5 achieved the quality necessary to actually deserve the name “replica” of a “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl.” BTW, teabowls deemed unworthy are simply destroyed – there is no such thing as a second quality here. To be exact, from among the batch size of 20,000 teabowls produced by Mr. Nagae, only 0.025% reached the necessary quality characteritics. The remaining 19,995 “unworthy” teabowls were all scrapped. As a matter of fact, the reproduction of “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” is considered very difficult by all experts unisono. Translated to the practice of karate kata, the above would mean that 99.975% of your attempts to perform a perfect kata would be failures.

Considering the above, you may imagine the complete perplexity among experts when at the end of December 2016 the TV Tokyo show “Better Fortune! The Appraisal Team for Anything” hunted out a teabowl. One of the show’s art connoisseurs, Nakajima Seinosuke, judged the teabowl to be a genuine “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl” of national treasure-class.  The teabowl was then estimated to be worth around 25 million Japanese Yen (approx. US $ 217,123 or € 202,952). Watch the appraisal here, or the full show here.

Since that day, this has become news all over the world.

The teabowl owner, who runs a ramen noodle-house in Tokushima, provided a convenient historical narrative: his great-grandfather found the teabowl when he worked as a carpenter building the residence of a descendant of Miyoshi Nagayoshi (1522–1564), a powerful warlord during the Japanese Age of Civil War.


However, meanwhile, earlier mentioned professional ceramic artist Nagae Sōkichi remonstrated the sensational discovery as being a low-quality Chinese imitation, such as are currently produced as souvenirs etc. in the kilns of China. “If you call this TV show teabowl a ‘gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl’, then there are hundreds of thousands of ‘gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls’ in this world,”says Nagae. Actually, just two days ago from now, on January 27, 2017, Mr. Nagae also protested the appraisal via a YouTube video in English.

Nagae is a 9th generation in a family line of ceramic artists who have attempted the perfect reproduction of “gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls” throughout the last two generations of father and son, over 70 years. Among others, Nagae pointed out that the color used for the TV show teabowl is a ‘spinel pigment’ color that was developed in Europe and only since the 18th century.

Asked about his impression of the appraisal of the teabowl on TV Tokyo’s show, Mr. Nagae explained:

“When I watched the program, at the moment when the tea bowl was appraised ‘gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowl,’ I was surprised. This is because it was clearly a souvenir-quality imitation such as is currently mass produced in kilns of China. I thought that this was certainly a joke.

Actually I thought to myself, ‘Today is not April Fool’s Day, or is it?’

However, I became speechless when I heard the appraisal that ‘Just as the gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls that are designated National Treasures [in Japan right now], this teabowl was certainly baked in the kilns of the Song Dynasty!’ ”

Mr. Nagae continued:

“Even if a common person sees is, the difference between the teabowl presented in the TV show and the ‘gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls’ that are designated National Treasures will be obvious. Both are totally different things. Looking at the image of a deer, would anyone believe that it is a horse? …

The teabowl presented in the TV show is such a low-level imitation that it does not even compare to imitations. Actually it is reminiscent of a kindergarten work. It does not even reach the level of a ‘forgery’.”

Journalists inquired about the newly discovered TV show teabowl with several art museums and antique art dealers, but in all cases they answered “It is nothing compared to the original ‘gloriously sparkling Tenmoku-style teabowls’ (that are National Treasures)…”

Morever, a survey planned with the teabowl’s owner for registration as a cultural property with the Tokushima prefectural government was suspended by January 23. It is said that this was caused by the owner who now wishes to “refrain from providing any information to the outside at all.”

Why does this remind me of certain karate kata that appeared out of nowhere, that are allegedly centuries old, but noone seems to have any clear information or even the willingness to inform the millions of karate fans, practitioners, sensei, and trainers and sportlers around the world just about how these specific kata reached you, your eminence?

I hope they are not modern forgeries from Fujian or elsewhere!!!

Anyway, the above topic of the teabowl was recently cited as an analogy with karate on the Motobu-ryū Blog in Japanese. I will continue here and provide a translation of the karate part (with kind permission of Motobu Naoki Shihan of the Motobu-ryū):

I think the traditions of martial arts (budō) do somehow resemble the above circumstances (of the teabowl). Following the Meiji Restoration (since 1868), many martial arts schools disappeared since they were no longer needed due to Japan’s Westernization movement. Furthermore, even after the Pacific War (1941–45) martial arts schools experienced a time of agony.

Karate’s fate was similar, but in its case—because on its inside a movement of self-denial developed under the outward pretense of “modernization”—many old-school kata and kumite techniques have been lost or were changed.

In karate magazines of about 1975-1985, karate people from various schools loudly clamored for a “modernisation of karate,” while the same people today refer to themselves as “karate of the traditional factions” (dentō-ha karate). So when I reread the magazines of those days this astonished me a bit.

In the Motobu-ryū, Sōke [Motobu Chōsei] in the past also received “advice” from persons of other schools, such as “Practicing a simple kata like Naihanchi is worthless (from the point of view of competition),” or “How about you change it to be more dynamic?” However, seeing the current reappraisal of Naihanchi, I will continue to believe it was good without changes.

Techniques lost once are not easy to reproduce. Unfortunately, unlike pottery which materially remains after 800 years, even if karate would be reproduced, who could assert that they are the same original intangible techniques of martial arts as they once were?

Therefore, I think that it is important that karate is being inherited uninterruptedly, and without being swept away by the fashions of the times.

Otherwise it might just be some kungfu in white dogi from a mass-production Karate souvenir shop…



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Karate no omoide (My Memories of Karate)

The article “Karate no omoide” (My Memories of Karate) is a primary source about Kyan Chōtoku’s life and his relation to karate. The article was published on 1942-05-07 in the Okinawa Shinpō Newspaper.

The Okinawa Shinpō was a result of the nationwide “newspaper control regulation (shinbun tōsei 新聞統制)”, implemented by the Department of Interior (naimushō 内務省) and the Information Office (jūbōkyoku 情報局) at its center. Its object was the integration of all existing newspapers in such a way that there was “one prefecture, one newspaper”.

In other words: media was synchronized for propaganda purposes.

In Okinawa, the newspaper control regulation was in effect from 1940 to 1945. It resulted in the establishment of the Okinawa Shinpō Newspaper in December 1940. To do so, three newspapers were integrated into the new one, namely: Ryūkyū Shinpō 琉球新報, Okinawa Asahi Shinbun 沖縄朝日新聞, and Okinawa Nippō 沖縄日報.

Even after the start of the ground war on Okinawa Main Island in April of 1945, the Okinawa Shinpō continued to be issued from an underground air-raid shelter in Shuri, but was disbanded on May 25, 1945.

“Karate no omoide” (Memories of Karate) [excerpt], by Kyan Chōtoku. Okinawa Shinpō, 1942-05-07.

“Karate no omoide” (Memories of Karate) [excerpt], by Kyan Chōtoku. Okinawa Shinpō, 1942-05-07.

As regards Okinawan newspapers and karate, it is well known today that plenty of articles had been published by the old Ryūkyū Shinpō. This newspaper began to publish articles about karate in earnest since around 1913, but covered karate-related topics already since the late 19th century.

This old Ryūkyū Shinpō was established in 1893 by former ruling class members Shō Jun 尚順 (1873–1945, 4th son of former King Shō Tai), Takamine Chōkyō 高嶺朝教 (1869–1939, 1st president of the Okinawa Gingko bank), and Ōta Chōfu 太田朝敷 (1865–1938).

As stated in the first issue (1898) of this old Ryūkyū Shinpō, the objective of this newspaper was

To strive for national assimilation, to smash the narrow-minded and evil local customs and to hound out regional insular provinciality.

Make no mistake: The old Ryūkyū Shinpō was very successful in achieving this objective. For this reason it was also referred to as the “agency paper of the ruling class.”

Above mentioned Ōta Chōfu, as the president of the Ryūkyū Shinpō at the time acted as the sponsor and interviewer at the famous 1936 “Meeting of Karate Masters.” The records of the meeting were subsequently printed by his newspaper (see for example, the translation by the Haiwaii Seinenkai, were his name is misspelled to Ota Choshiki).

Ōta Chōfu is a prominent figure within the apolitical self-narrative of modern karate romance. He also provides an example of the diremption of Okinawan society, and karate. While karate today is narrated as a martial art of peaceful people from an ancient peaceful kingdom — with peaceful bitter melons and peaceful baby pork hoove snacks and peaceful everything –, and while there is no first attack (!) in karate, Ōta Chōfu and karate men of his time fully supported Imperial Japan. They did not support any cultural, lifestylish, or peaceful Okinawa.

As regards Ōta, he was one of the first Okinawan students to obtain a scholarship to study in Tōkyō and received a decidedly Japanese – not Okinawan – education. In 1931 he served as the mayor of Shuri and as Okinawan representative in the prefectural assembly.

Ōta Chōfu 太田朝敷 (1865–1938). From: <a href="">Ryubun21</a>.

Ōta Chōfu 太田朝敷 (1865–1938). From: Ryubun21.

In his journalistic idea, Ōta focused on the 1st Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), in which Japan was victorious and which ended the Ryūkyū Question, i.e. Chinese claims on Ryūkyū. This war also ended the Ryūkyūan fight for restoration of the kingdom. And it also brought Taiwan under Japanese control, were it remained until 1945 and were many karate men would serve or tour, including Kyan Chōtoku. This was one of the most crucial events in the making of modern Okinawa Prefecture, and modern Japan!

Ōta, together with 4th prefectural governor Narahara Shigeru 奈良原繁 – nicknamed the “King of Ryukyū” and practitioner of Jigen-ryū sword fencing – orchestrated the oppression and ultimately the destruction of the person Jahana Noboru 謝花昇 (1865–1908), the then leader of an Okinawan movement for democracy.

So while Ōta is often portrayed as some nice karate-related guy, his idea of karate was not that of a peaceful Okinawa that never attacked anyone else, but that of the Japanese conolianism, imperialism, and militarism of his time.

Until the time of the “newspaper control regulation” in 1940, the proprietors of the old Ryūkyū Shinpō were all wealthy persons who worked together with the prefectural authorities in achieving national aims while following the editorial policy of “worshipping the powerful” and oppressing the Okinawan civil movement for democracy.

And this political viewpoint can clearly be seen in the (at least) 124 karate-related articles that the old Ryūkyū Shinpō published between 1898 and 1940 (unpublished survey by this author).

It was in the above circumstaces that the Okinawa Shinpō Newspaper came into being in December 1940. “Karate no omoide” (My Memories of Karate) by Kyan Chōtoku was published on 1942-05-07. The text is organized as follows:

■ The Way of Karate
■ The Purpose of Karate
■ Techniques of Victory or Defeat
■ The Method of Unrestricted Offense and Defense
■ The Preparation of the Practitioners
■ The Necessity of Physical Strength
■ Musular Accordance
■ Age and Physique of the Practitioners
■ Chīshī and Makiwara
■ Conclusion

The largest part of the text is about karate and related topics. However, in connection with the earlier mentioned role that newspapers played in Imperial Japanese war propaganda, it is interesting to read Kyan’s conclusion:


I have attained a long life of seventy-three years and yet I have achieved nothing for our society. Here I have written down my memories of karate, making my own essay available to the public, shamelessly. But meanwhile, unfolding from the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) to the Greater East Asian War (1941–1945), the divine spiritual powers of officers and men of the Imperial Japanese Army suddenly appear in the skies and at seas and scatter our huge Caucasian enemies like one unified body. The fruits of battle are based on the glorious virtues of the Emperor, and our officers and men have enhanced the deepest secrets of Bushidō – the Way of the Warrior. Meanwhile, it is unbearable for this old man, to sit here, like an old tree, comfortably next to a charcoal brazier.”

One can clearly see that the conclusion of the article was written under consideration of tatemae (façade towards the public). Moreover, it was not a free society in those days and there was a strong wartime censorship — Like in today’s North Korea. This can also be noticed in Mabuni Kenwa’s and Nakasone Genwa’s books. So one might argue that Kyan said what he had to say.

However, Kyan’s ardent admiration for militarism during the escalating war, and his grief for being too old to participate himself, which clearly aims at moral mobilization of the readers, and all that just 5 months after Pearl Harbor: this does not sound to me as if there was “no first attack in karate.” It does not sound to me like the ingénue, peaceful, old former aristocratic karate master.

To be honest, I wonder how much of Kyan’s karate was really still something “original Okinawan”…

The above was an erstwhile reality of karate. But for how long?

Kyan Chotoku's wife Kama. Was it all her fault?

Kyan Chotoku’s wife Kama. Was it all her fault?

There is a terminological problem related to it, namely the timeframe referred to as senzen 戦前 in Japan, literally “the pre-war days”. This term is standard Japanese historical terminology and also used extensively in karate literature. It is sometimes still used for 1941, sometimes for 1942 and basically rethorically narrows down the war years to a very few years, sometimes — and especially in connection with Okinawa — only to 1945. So from the self-narrative of Okinawa karate, December 1944 might well have been considered the pre-war years. What do the Hawaiians think of this?

By this, the term narrows down not only the timeframe, but also the significance of the related, factual military history – and whatever personal opportunities, responsibilities, actions, or inactions related to it. And this is a bit too ambiguous to be helpful, quite on the contrary.

Okinawan soldiers, occupying forces, policemen and business men etc.pp. roamed all of Southeast Asia since the 1st Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), and many of them were karate men. And — as can be seen in his own words — Kyan admired military expansion and would have loved to take part.

Therefore, and particularly to better assess Okinawa karate under the actual circumstances of the time, and moreover to draw a line between the actual “prewar years” and the “war years”, a definition of the timeframe is necessary. And this timeframe of the “war years” should include the years 1931 to 1945 — from the Asia-Pacific War which started with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (September 1931), via the 2nd Sino-Japanese War (1937), Pearl Harbor (1941) until 1945 (Okinawa). Because it is impossible that these events had no impact on Okinawa, its people, and karate.

In any case, I am not blaming anybody here. Kyan was just normal people and caught by circumstances.

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Nakaima Kenkō on ‘dō’ and ‘jutsu’

In the Japanese martial arts there is a rough categorization into martial technique (jutsu) and martial sport (). The difference, in a nutshell, is that the -variants like kendō, judō, karatedō etc. serve an educational ideal. This might be seen as a modern interpretation of “filial piety”, i.e. supporting oneself, one’s parents, and one’s country. Jutsu, on the other hand, has zero value other than simple technical efficiancy – it is only about martial techniques.

Nakaima Kenko, 4th generation of Ryuei-ryu.

Nakaima Kenko, 4th generation of Ryu’ei-ryu.

In fact, during the develoment of modern Japanese martial arts, the refinement from a mere jutsu to a higher level of (and to a sport) was considered of utmost importance by the elites. In other words: Jutsu makes an individual stronger. makes a country stronger. Just ask the ministry of education.

Nakaima Kenkō (1911–1989) was an educator by profession. As the successor to the Ryūei-ryū, since his childhood he was strictly trained by his father and master Kenchū in this family martial art. At the age of 37 he received “Initiation into the mysterious principles of Ryūei-ryū” (Ryūei-ryū kaiden 劉衛流皆伝).

During his time at the Okinawa Teacher’s College – where in the early 20th century modern karate was born – he studied kendō with the masters Tomikawa Moritake 富川盛武 and Ishihara Hiroshi 石原弘 and later studied under Ishihara Masanao 石原昌直 (8. Dan Hanshi). His karate instructors at the Okinawa Teacher’s College were master Ōshiro Chōjo 大城朝恕 of Shuri-te – whose karate was of the Itosu system, while his bōjutsu was from Yamanni 山根 of Shuri Kanagusuku village – and master Yabu Kentsū, whose karate was of the Matsumura system.

The technical contents of Ryū’ei-ryū are quite extensive and include unarmed methods of Kenpō 拳法 (present day karate-dō), military methods of Heihō 兵法 (old Chinese weapons), the methods of healthcare (Yōjōhō 養生法), the method of boxing with a brave heart (Kenyūshin-hō 拳勇心法), as well as others, such as ninjutsu-ish actions.

According to Nakaima Kenkō himself, the empty handed kata of the style were the following (as of 1977):

  • 1) Sanchin, Sēsan. 2) Nisēshī. 3) Sansērū. 4) Sēyunchin. 5) Ōhan. 6) Pāchū. 7) Ānan. 8) Paikū. 9) Heikū. 10) Paihō.

In terms of modern-style ranks, Nakaima Kenkō was a hanshi of karate-dō, a hanshi of kobudō, and a kyōshi of kendō.

And by profession he was the principal of public elementary and middle school in Okinawa. His students Sakumoto Tsuguo and Kinjō Takeyuki also followed the modern martial sports philosophy of budō and were both ranked in karate-dō, in jūdō, and in kendō (BTW, you can tell that many of today’s karate champs do not get their excellent physique and good looks from karate training, but from all sorts of sports).

In accordance with the above, Nakaima Kenkō obviously fully supported the ideals of budō – probably as a sport and as an education – over those of jutsu. In his own words, Nakaima Kenkō raised the following rhetoric question:

“In the oldest character dictionary of Chinese writing, i.e. the Shuowen Jiezi 説文解字, the character jutsu 術 is defined as ‘a path within a village’ [術:邑中道也]. During the feudal era, the bujutsu 武術 or martial arts of Japan were referred to as jūjutsu 柔術, kenjutsu 剣術 and the like. After the Meiji era these martial arts came to be referred to as jūdō, kendō etc. and were considered budō 武道, or martial ways towards character formation. These martial arts were also implemented into school eduction in the form of budō 武道, or martial ways. However, in today’s world of karate, there are still people who use the word kobujutsu 古武術. Isn’t this like going backwards through the eras?”


Biblio: Uechi Kanei: Seisetsu Okinawa Karate-dō: Sono Rekishi to Gihō. Uechi-ryū Karate-dō Kyōkai, Ginowan 1977. 上地完英(監修):精説 沖縄空手道。その歴史と技法。上地流空手道協会、宜野湾 1977。

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Bushi Matsumora – The Novel

Previously I wrote about Bushi Matsumora – The Movie. Today it is “Bushi Matsumora – The Novel”.

The heroic tales of Matsumora Kōsaku were written down in the novel “Bushi Matsumora” (武士松茂良) by Matsumora Kōnin 松茂良興仁 (pen-name Matsumura Takesaburō 松村竹三郎). When it was serialized in a number of short stories in the Ryūkyū Shinpō newspaper and published over the course of several months in 1938, the whole thing gained popularity.

Due to this popularity the story was made into a stage play.

Dramatization for stage was carried out by Tomoyose Teruhiko 友寄英彦, a dentist.

Karate instruction for the stage play was provided by no less than Nagamine Shōshin 長嶺将真, founder of the Matsubayashi-ryū and one mainstay of Tomari-te, the regional martial art largely based on Matsumora’s traditions.

“Bushi Matsumora” was performed as a stage play by the Sangoza 珊瑚座 theater troupe led by Majikina Yūkō. The stage play received praise not only from the Karate world, but also by the general public.

Above all, the Karate performance by Shimabuku Kōyū 島袋光裕 portraying Matsumora Kōsaku is said to have been a vivid reminder of master Matsumora during the days gone by. Among the spectators fascinated by Shimabuku’s realistic performance even seem to have been persons betting that “He’s not an actor, but a substitute who knows Karate!

There is another episode to this: After a play of “Bushi Matsumora” had ended, on his return trip to his home in Tsuji, Shimabuku Kōyū was surrounded by a few young people, one of which challenged him to a fight, saying

“So, you say you know Karate, huh!?!?”

Shimabuku (40 years old at that time) narrowly escaped danger, answering,

“I am an actor who does not know Karate. That performance is a stage play, so please stop bullying older people.”

Illustration from the sequel "Bushi Matsumora". Source: 琉文21.

Illustration from the sequel “Bushi Matsumora”. Source: 琉文21.

Biblio: Matsumura Kōshō (former family name: Matsumora): Bushi Matsumora Kōsaku Ryakuden: Karate (Tomari-te) Chūkō no So. Naha 1970.

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Martial Artists of Ryūkyū – A Legacy by Motobu Choki

motobu_chokiBy Motobu Chōki (auth.), translated with commentary by Andreas Quast

Choki was born into the Motobu Udun – descendants of a royal prince – and raised as a traditional Okinawan bushi. After a long warrior pilgrimage, in which he put practical martial arts to the test whenever and with whomever possible, Choki became both the most celebrated and the most notorious Okinawan fighter ever.

In this text Choki, in vivid details, reports what he has had been bequeathed by the elders about the martial artists and their special skills of the royal capital of Shuri and elsewhere. What was martial art back in Okinawa? The answer might be right in front of you.

This short work originally appeared as a chapter in the book Watakushi no Karatejutsu (My Art and Skill of Karate) by Motobu Choki, 1932.

«Blaming a method is the same as asking for a duel. And so, Haebaru put on full dress and the two met in the hall of Oroku Castle, to settle the matter.»

Print edition: US | CA | UK | DE | FR | ES | IT

Kindle edition: US | CA | UK | DE | FR | ES | IT | JP

  • TIP: If you do not own a Kindle but still prefer this over a printed edition, just download their FREE APP for iOS, Android, Mac & PC.

5″ x 8″ (12.7 x 20.32 cm)
Black & White on Cream paper
54 pages
ISBN-13: 978-1542453462
ISBN-10: 1542453461
BISAC: Sports & Recreation / Martial Arts & Self-Defense

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1960 – Okinawa Kenpō

The following text is the translation of an Okinawan newspaper article from 1960. This article is about the establishment of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters of the Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei (JKF).

In the article it is clearly stated that — until that time — Okinawa Karatedo itself was centered on Kata. However, this group initially aimed to change this and to reform Okinawa Karatedo itself.

“The Establishment of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters of the Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei (JKF)!”

“On [date] from noon, at the Shimabukuro dōjō (dōjō director, Shimabukuro Zenryō) in Jagaru in Chatan village, about 38 dōjō instructors from all over the island gathered and performed the establishment [of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters of the Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei (JKF)].”

“Tamotsu Isamu, director of the Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei (JKF) who is currently on the island, was dispatched by that same federation to help in the formation of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters.”

“The Special Officers of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters are as follows:”

“Here and from now on, the Okinawa Regional Headquarters will be the only gateway to introduce real Okinawa Karatedo technique into Japan, and as Karatedo with armor, we are working on the modernization of Karatedo.”

“Given the tradition and fundaments of the Karate of the Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei (JKF), and at the same time that of the Okinawa Regional Headquarters, from now on, we will study Karatedo with armor, and embark towards a reform of Okinawa Karatedo itself, which hitherto was centered on Kata, and for the first time since the beginning of history, we enter in the exchange and assimilation of Japanese-Ryukyuan Karatedo.”

For their service, Nakamura Shigeru, Shimabukuro Zenryō, and Kaneshima Shinsuke were awarded a 10 Dan by the JKF. The other Sensei of this association each were awarded the 7 dan, such as Tsuha Kōmei 7. Dan, Ōmura Motozen (Kizen) 7. Dan, and Tōma Seikan 7. Dan.

It is clearly said that the Okinawa Regional Headquarters was were Okinawa Kenpō actually started:

“Nakamura (Shigeru) felt how strong Japanese karate organization was at the competition and worried about the future of Okinawa karate…”

The various schools that participated in Okinawa Kenpō were organized in – or recruited from – the “Okinawa Regional Headquarters (JKF)” (est. 1960) and from the “Okinawa Kobudō Kyōkai” (est. 1961), two progressive and innovative groups of that era.

The Okinawa Regional Headquarters was formed under the major objective of uniting the whole of Japan in a competition using protective gear. While this was achieved by others, namely the various Bōgu-tsuki Karate associations, Okinawa Kenpō in various interpretations became a hit in the US.


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8. Generation Gima Pēchin Shinji 儀間親雲上眞時

Names and DOB

  • Childhood name: Shinshi眞市
  • Chinese-style name: Ma Sagen 麻作愿
  • Born: as the firstborn son, 1612 (?) -01-05


  • Father: Shinshi 眞之
  • Mother: Magami 眞龜 of the Kin-clan 金氏
  • Wife: Mamichi 眞滿, daughter of Kuniyoshi Pēchin Shinshun 國吉親雲上眞春 of the Sa-clan 査氏 (Died 1652-02-27. Posthumous name: Kogatsu 湖月)
  • Oldest daughter: Umigami 思龜 (born 1626-12-21, married Yonaha Pēchin Sōshin 我那覇親雲上宗信 of the Go-clan 呉氏, date of death unknown)
  • Oldest son: Shindai 眞代 (different genealogy)
  • Second son: Shinshū 眞周
  • Third son: Shinsei 眞成
  • Fourth son: 眞辰 (different genealogy)
  • Second daughter: Manabi 眞鍋 (born 1638-05-15, married Maezato Pēchin Chochoku 前里親雲上朝直 of the Princely Shō-clan 向氏. Died 1702-08-16. Posthumous name: Gesshin 月心)
  • Fifth son: Shinshū 眞秋
  • Second wife: Umitu 思戸, daughter of Gushikawa Chikudun Pēchin 具志川筑登之親雲上 from Kanera village, Tomigusuku district 豊見城間切金良村
  • Third daughter: Umitu 思戸 (born 1644-11-08, married Sakihama Pēchin Seiwa 崎濱親雲上盛和 of the Mō-clan 毛氏. Died 1695-10-25. Posthumous name: Baigan 梅巖)
  • Fourth daughter: Maguji 眞呉勢 (born 1650-01-23, married Uchima Pēchin Bushi 内間親雲上武之 of the Chi-clan智氏. Died 1723-08-17. Posthumous name: Bairin 梅林)
  • Sixth son: Shin’ō 眞往 (different genealogy)
  • Seventh son: Shinbun 眞文 (different genealogy)
  • Fifth daughter: Majiru 眞鶴 (born 1667-11-05, married Shigema Chikudun Pēchin Genmei 志慶間筑登之親雲上元命 of the Yō-clan 姚氏. Died 1690-08-04. Posthumous name: Jikaku 自覺)


During the Era of King Shō Hō 尚豊王

  • 1622-0918: Serves as an apprentice (Ko-akukabe 小赤頭)
  • 1626-09: He tied up his topknot (coming of age)
  • 1627-02-22: Serves as a squire (Hana-atari 花當)
  • 1634-08-08: Serves as an adjudant (Chikudun) of the Seiyaritomi 勢遣冨筑登之.
  • 1637–38: Sailed on a tribute ship to Fujian, and afterwards to Satsuma. 1637-09-29 they set sails in Naha, went to Fujian, and in the following year 1638-01-08 they arrived in Kagoshima and completed business. On 1638-02-05 they returned home to Okinawa. On 02-07 Gima Shinji was conferred to the court rank of Yellow Hachimaki (黄冠), i.e. the Pēchin rank.
  • 1639-08-06: Assuming head of family, he is appointed eatste steward (Jitō) of Gima in Mawashi district 眞和地間切儀間地頭

During the Era of King Shō Shitsu 尚質王

  • 1654-02-02: Appointed Magistrate of Sugar Production (Satō Bugyō 砂糖奉行)
  • 1659-12-27: Conferred to the court rank of Zashiki (rank 4 minor) 座敷
  • 1660: Toured the island for inspections as an inspector (代廻檢者), together with the Assistant Superintendent (Ginmiyaku 吟味役) of the Omono Bugyō 御物奉行, Miyagi Pēchin Kensen 宮城親雲上賢宣 of the Ka-clan 夏氏, and the Liaison Police Inspector (Yamato Yokome 大和横目) Kobashigawa Pēchin Yūsei 小橋川親雲上由政 of the Sai-clan 蔡氏. They procceeded to the islands of Ie, Iheya, Kume, Kerama, Aguni, and Tonaki. After completion of official business, they returned to the capital [Shuri].
  • 1671-01-05: Died at the age of 63. Posthumous name: Jōseki 常寂

Additional Info

In the entry for 1634-08-08 we can see one very important thing: He served as an adjudant (Chikudun) of the Seiyaritomi 勢遣冨筑登之. In other words: The HIKI organization of old Ryukyu — which included the military — has not been abolished after the Satsuma invasion of 1609. How the whole organization was transformed to fit the new circumstances is described in detail in my Karate 1.0.



  • 沖縄の歴史情報 第5巻。画像と全文テキストデータベース (Ⅰ)。 (6)「琉球家譜」の情報化。①首里系家譜。麻姓家譜 (田名家).
  • Naha-shi Shi. Shiryō-hen, Dai Ni Maki, Chū no 7. Naha no Minzoku. 那覇市史。資料篇 第2巻,中の7。那覇の民俗。
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7. Generation Gima Satonushi Pēchin Shinshi 儀間里之子親雲上眞之

Names and DOB

  • Childhood name: Masanrā 眞三良
  • Chinese-style name: Ma Kyōyo 麻擧要
  • Born: as the firstborn son, 1585


  • Father: Shinjō 眞常
  • Mother: Manabi 眞鍋 of the Mō-clan 毛氏
  • Wife: Magami 眞龜, daughter of Tomoyose Pēchin (Kin Shireki) 友寄親雲上 (金仕歴)(she died 1662-02-18. Posthumous name: Kyūsan 久山)
  • Oldest daughter: Manabi 眞鍋 (born 1604. Married Nagamine Chikudun Kōkō 長峯筑登之孝效 of the Ki-clan 冀氏. Died 1677-08-18. Posthumous name: Tessen 哲仙)
  • Second daughter: Makatu 眞加戸 (born 1607. Married Tōmei Chikudun Pēchin Sō’en 當銘筑登之親雲上宗演 of the Sō-clan 莊氏. Died 1669-12-29. Posthumous name: Bairin 梅林)
  • Oldest son: Shinji 眞時
  • Second son: Shinshō 眞韶 (different genealogy) [here the Ishimine House branches off 麻姓 (石嶺家)]
  • Third daughter: Umitu 思戸 (born 1615-12-25. Married Nakijin Satonushi Pēchin Seiko 今歸仁里之子親雲上盛古 of the Mō-clan 毛氏. Died 1667-08-20. Posthumous name: Haku’an 栢庵)
  • Third son: Shinsei 眞清 (different genealogy) [here the Tawada House branches off 麻姓 (多和田)]


During the Era of King Shō Nei 尚寧王

  • 1598-03-15: Serves as an apprentice (Ko-akukabe 小赤頭)
  • 1600-02: He tied up his topknot (coming of age)
  • 1600-05-09: Serves as a squire (Hana-atari 花當)
  • 1605-02-09: Conferred to the court rank of Waka-satonushi (若里之子)
  • 1612-06-05: Conferred to the court rank of Yellow Hachimaki (黄冠), i.e. the rank of Satonushi Pēchin

During the Era of King Shō Hō 尚豊王

  • 1628-04-28: Appointed “Magistrate for Managing the Annual Tribute to Satsuma”  (Shinobose Bugyō 仕上世奉行).
  • 1631-12-25: Inherits the fief of his father, worth 30 Koku
  • 1633-06-09: Died at the age of 50 and before his own father. Posthumous name: Kaioku 槐屋

Additional Info

His 2nd and 3rd sons established the first branch houses (支流) of the Ma-clan: The 2nd son established the Ishimine House, the 3rd son established the Tawada House.

These lineages are interesting because both Ishimine and Tawada are names connected to old-style Karate and Kobudō of the latter half of the 19th century.


  • 沖縄の歴史情報 第5巻。画像と全文テキストデータベース (Ⅰ)。 (6)「琉球家譜」の情報化。①首里系家譜。麻姓家譜 (田名家).
  • Naha-shi Shi. Shiryō-hen, Dai Ni Maki, Chū no 7. Naha no Minzoku. 那覇市史。資料篇 第2巻,中の7。那覇の民俗。
  • Others
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6. Generation Gima Uēkata Shinjō 儀間親方眞常

Names and DOB

  • Childhood name: Shinshi 眞市
  • Chinese-style name: Ma Heikō 麻平衡
  • Born: as the thirdborn son, 1557.


  • Father: Shinmei 眞命
  • Mother: Manabi 眞鍋 of the Sō-clan 莊氏
  • Wife: Manabi 眞鍋, daughter of Ahagon Shī Sei’i 阿波根子盛懿 of the Mō-clan 毛氏 (she died 1633-06-09. Posthumous name: Rinshun 林春)
  • Oldest son: Shinshi 眞之
  • Oldest daughter: Maushi 眞牛 (date of birth and death unknown, married Goeku Niya 越來爾也)


During the Era of King Shō Gen 尚元王

  • During the Longqing years (1567–1572): Served as Ko-akukabe 小赤頭

During the Era of King Shō Ei 尚永王

  • During the reign of the Wanli emperor (1572–1620): served as squire (Hana-atari 花當), conferred to the court rank of Waka-satonushi (若里之子), conferred to a Yellow Hachimaki (黄冠), i.e. he was promoted to Pēchin status.

During the Era of King Shō Nei 尚寧王

  • 1593-05-06: Assuming the family headship from his father, he is appointed Estate steward (Jitō 地頭) of Gima in Mawashi district 眞和志儀間地頭
  • 1596-06-05: Served as commander (Seitō) of the Oshiaketomi 押明富勢頭
  • 1605, Noguni Sōkan 野國總管 brought sweet potatoes plants from Fujian, China. When Shinjō 眞常 heard about his, he asked to study potato cultivation. Noguni explained to him: “To cultivate [the potato], fold it into a strip of hemp cloth of about 30cm length and place it in the field. When the time has come, pull up the cloth strip and so pull out the potato from the hole.” By planting potatoes in the whole country, supplementing the five crops, Gima Shinjō 眞常 planned to counteract food shortages and huge famines, which happened frequently. For 15 years Gima Shinjō instructed the cultivation of potatoes in Ryūkyū. Additionally, he was also active in the cultivation of various other crops and grains.
  • 1606-08-11: Appointed Seitō of the Jakunitomi (castle guard commander) 謝國富勢頭
  • 1609-04: When King Sho Nei 尚寧王 was taken to Satsuma (Sasshū 薩州), Gima Shinjō accompanied him in the role of a guard (Seitō) (勢頭役). The ship set sails in Naha on 1609-05-17. He returned to Ryūkyū on 1611-09-13. On 1611-12-01 he was conferred to the court rank of Zashiki (rank 4 minor) 座敷. From Satsuma, Gima Shinjō had brought back cotton seeds for weaving cotton cloths. Gima Shinjō told two Japanese women (named Umechiyo 梅千代 and Michiyo 實千代) who lived in Izumisaki village to begin to manufacture cloth by weaving, and this was the beginning of cotton cloth weaving in Ryūkyū.
  • Although in olden times this country had its own sugar cane, it was unknown how to manufacture brown sugar. Consequently, in 1623, at the time when the tribute ship sailed to Fujian, Gima Shinjō ordered some villagers of Gima to accompany the tribute ship and to study the method of sugar refinement. First this method of sugar refinement was done at Gima Shinjō’s house, and later spread in the whole country.
  • Gima Shinjō was also appointed Magistrate of Farmland (Tenchi Bugyō 田地奉行 )

During the Era of King Shō Hō 尚豊王

  • 1624-01-15: Conferred to the court rank of purple Hachimaki 紫冠, i.e. the rank of Uēkata
  • 1624-05-04: In this country [of Ryūkyū], since ancient times until now dragon boat races have been performed as magnificent spectacles. So, Gima Shinjō 眞常 was requested to make preparations in connection with dragon boat races. In this connection, his Majesty the King Shō Hō 尚豊 honored Gima Shinjō with his presence at the latter’s residence.
  • 1627-06-22: Receives a fief income of 30 Koku
  • 1644-10-14: Died after a long life of 88 years. Posthumous name: Juryō 授了

Additional Info

Although Gima Shinjō was only the thirdborn son, he succeeded the head of household.

He passed through a typical career within the government organization of old Ryūkyū. This included positions in the HIKI (see here for a short overview).

Starting as an apprentice (Ko-akukabe 小赤頭),  at around 40 he became commander (Seitō) of the Oshiaketomi regiment. Around 50 years of age, he was appointed commander of the castle guards (Seitō of the Jakunitomi).

Not surprisingly, when a few years later – in 1609 – the Shimazu Clan conquered the Ryūkyū Kingdom and took King Sho Nei to Satsuma, Gima Shinjō accompanied him in the role of a guard (Seitō).

Actually, there is the tradition of the Bo of Gima Shinjo.


  • 沖縄の歴史情報 第5巻。画像と全文テキストデータベース (Ⅰ)。 (6)「琉球家譜」の情報化。①首里系家譜。麻姓家譜 (田名家).
  • Naha-shi Shi. Shiryō-hen, Dai Ni Maki, Chū no 7. Naha no Minzoku. 那覇市史。資料篇 第2巻,中の7。那覇の民俗。
  • others
Placque at Gima Shinjo' tomb, located at the Hijigaabira-maai.

Placque at Gima Shinjo’ tomb, located at the Hijigaabira-maai.

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5. Generation Gima Pēchin Shinmei 儀間親雲上眞命

Names and DOB

  • Childhood name: Masanrā 眞三郎
  • Chinese-style name: Ma Jishō 麻時嘗
  • Born: as the firstborn son, 1513


  • Father: Shinmō 眞孟
  • Mother: A person from Izumisaki village
  • Wife: Manabi 眞鍋, daughter of Oroku Pēchin Sōshin 小禄親雲上宗親 of the Sō-clan 莊氏 (she died 1613-08-14. Posthumous name: Getsuho 月蒲)
  • Oldest son: Ōmine Pēchin 大嶺親雲上
  • Second son: Gima Niya 儀間爾也
  • Oldest daughter: Umitama 思玉 (date of birth and death unknown, married Heianzan Pēchin Yūmei 平安山親雲上重明 of the Tsu-clan 兪氏)
  • Third son Shinjō 眞常


During the Era of King Shō Sei 尚清王

  • 1546-08-10: Served as adjudant (Chikudun) of the Sejiaratomi 勢治荒富筑登之, sailing towards the countries of South-East-Asia (nanban 南蠻)

Note:  Nanban 南蠻 or “Southern Barbarians” usually refers to the Europeans – Spaniards and Portuguese – who came to Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries via Southeast Asia. However, from the Muromachi‑ (1336–) to the early Edo-era (1603–) it referred to the countries of South-East-Asia.

  • 1550-10-08: At the time when tribute chief-envoy Mai Shishi 邁志刺 sailed to Fujian 閩, he served as a warehouse manager (Kansha 官舎). After his return to Ryūkyū he was appointed Estate steward (Jitō 地頭) of Sesoko in Nakijin district 今歸仁間切瀬底, and appointed commander (Seitō) of the Sejiaratomi 勢治荒富勢頭
  • 1555-01-10: He accompanied the envoys Ryō Ken 梁顯 and Ba Chushō 馬忠章 to Fujian to present tribute to the Chinese Emperor

During the Era of King Shō Gen 尚元王

  • 1560-08-08: Transferred to the office of Estate steward (Jitō 地頭) of Ōmine in Tomigusuku district 豊見城間切大嶺
  • 1562-02-25: Together with the “To-tsūji” Ryō San梁燦, he sailed to Fujian to inquire about the return of the “ship of the heavenly envoys” (=Sappōshi) to China

Note: To-tsūji 都通事: mainly, but not limited to, senior interpreter-clerks who handled tributary and other public affairs

  • 1562-12-05: Appointed commander (Seitō) of the Fusaitomi 相應富勢頭
  • 1563-11-05: Again appointed commander (Seitō) of the Sejiaratomi 勢治荒富勢頭. Afterwards, as a reward for his loyalty during various trips, he was conferred to the court rank of Zashiki (rank 4 minor) 座敷. Finally he succeeded his father as the head of household and assumed office as Estate steward (Jitō 地頭) of Gima in Mawashi district 眞和志儀間
  • 1595-10-09: Died after a long life of 83 years. Posthumous name: Shō’ō 松翁

Additional Info

The Nature of the Hiki

Each Hiki was referred to by a unique name, for instance Fusaitomi, Sejiaratomi, Seiyaritomi etc. As we can see from the genealogy above, Gima Pēchin Shinmei was first appointed Chikudun (adjudant), and later promoted to Seitō (commander) of a Hiki.

The original nature of the Hiki is connected to the eulogistic suffix ~tomi. This suffix is a shortened form of its original meaning, that is: to become famous or renowned, to achieve fame. In old Ryūkyū it was used as a eulogistic suffix for large seagoing vessels: All the Hiki names bear such ship names and the eulogistic suffix, too. That is why it is said in the above genealogy that Gima Pēchin Shinmei “served as Chikudun of the Sejiaratomi, sailing towards the countries of South-East-Asia.” This can also be seen in the oldest known written appointment of royal office (jireisho 辞令書) in existence, dated 1523-08-28:

“The statement below is an order of the king. Shiotarumoi, who belongs to the Seiyaritomi Hiki, is appointed to the post of warehouse manager aboard the Takara-maru, which will soon set sail for China. This writ of appointment is given from the king to the above-mentioned Shiotarumoi.”

The suffix ~tomi designating a ship-name also often appears in the collection of ancient prose called Omoro-sōshi, for example in the Kakuratoyotega-bushi from Omoro-sōshi Vol. 3. In this Omoro appear the terms Yohikitomi, Sejiaratomi, Yotsugitomi, Kumokotomi, Amaetomi, and Oshiaketomi, which were all names of Ryūkyūan seagoing vessels.

Maritime-based and Land-based Hiki

The Hiki as an organic combination of various government functions. By Andreas Quast.

The Hiki as an organic combination of various government functions. By Andreas Quast.

Iha Fuyū stated, “Because foreign trade voyages were at the center of the activities of the people of Old Ryūkyū, we realize that the Sentō (captains) steering these vessels were diverted from their original intended use.” Indeed, the designations of seagoing vessels and their associated official posts coincide with that of the land-based Hiki. Consequently, the land-based Hiki had the same standardized office organization as the organization of the sea-going vessels. From that, Takara formulated the question that, perhaps, the Hiki were “land-based maritime vessels” (Chijō no kaisen 地上の海船),  and the vessels were “Hiki floating on the sea” (Umi ni ukanda Hiki  海に浮んだヒキ). Just as sea-going vessels would sail in a fleet comprising of several ships, the Hiki were also organized in groups consisting of a number of Hiki. And just as the ship with the chief tribute envoy as its commander was the flagship of a fleet, the Hiki with its Hikigashira as commander was the “flagship” in each of the Three Guards.

The Hiki as a maritime and land-based organization. By Andreas Quast.

The Hiki as a maritime and land-based organization. By Andreas Quast.

At the time this system emerged, the king was on top of the country’s official overseas trade, which was solely managed by the royal government, and therefore, the envoys’ ships were government-owned ships. All posts in this official overseas traffic were also issued in the name of the king, as is clearly shown in the kingdom’s written appointments (jireisho), and thus all crew members were employees of the royal government. In this way, all activities in the country of destination were government businesses, too. And so, regardless of being sailing voyages or land-based duties, any of the activities the Hiki were involved in were government businesses. This was the state of affairs, and it was this framework that the system of the Hiki originated in.

Yarazamori-gusuku. Photo by Andreas Quast. Excerpt from a picture painted by Tomoyose Chikudun Pechin Kikō 友寄筑登之親雲喜恒, 116.5 x 56.5 cm. From the possession of the Okinawa-kenritsu Zushokan Higaonna Bunko 東恩納文庫.

Yarazamori-gusuku. Photo by Andreas Quast. Excerpt from a picture painted by Tomoyose Chikudun Pechin Kikō 友寄筑登之親雲喜恒, 116.5 x 56.5 cm. From the possession of the Okinawa-kenritsu Zushokan Higaonna Bunko 東恩納文庫.


  • 沖縄の歴史情報 第5巻。画像と全文テキストデータベース (Ⅰ)。 (6)「琉球家譜」の情報化。①首里系家譜。麻姓家譜 (田名家).
  • Naha-shi Shi. Shiryō-hen, Dai Ni Maki, Chū no 7. Naha no Minzoku. 那覇市史。資料篇 第2巻,中の7。那覇の民俗。
  • Takara Kurayoshi, 1993
  • Ryūkyū-kuni Yuraiki, 1713
  • Iha Fuyū, 1975
  • Okamoto, in: Acta Asiatica 2008
  • Quast, Andreas: Karate 1.0 (2013)
  • Others
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